On this page I have three categories of works: published, in progress, and abandoned. Published works are simply any work I have had published by some entity that publishes things. Works in progress are those which I am currently working on. Abandoned works are those which for one reason or another I see fit to put on my website, but I have no present intention to further work on them, and nobody has seen fit to publish them.


Knowing Infallibly: A Case for Infallible Phenomenal Knowledge
Abstract: Fallibilism, the thesis that no belief can be known for certain, has become a popular view in epistemology. The certainty of our perceptions, inductions, faculties of reason, and even self-knowledge are regularly challenged. On this view, most of epistemology then deals with knowledge that is probably fallible. However, knowledge of our own primitive feelings may avert the likely fallibility of other sources of knowledge. In this paper I argue that primitive feelings are an infallible source of knowledge even in the face of the strongest fallibilist challenges, by exploring what kinds of things that, if believed, must be true. I address the matter first by determining what kinds of things that, if they are true, we must be justified in believing if and when we believe them. Next I determine what can be believed only if true. Then I show that primitive feeling fulfills both of these. Finally, since primitive feelings do fulfill these requirements, I show that if the feelings are believed then necessarily they are also known for certain. Then I address challenges that pose issues for self-knowledge and explain how they do not create real problems for primitive feelings even if they do for other kinds of self-knowledge. Through this process, I refine into a tightly understandable category what constitutes these sorts of feelings that, if believable, are also infallibly knowable. From there we can come to know for certain some things about the world we exist in.

In Progress

Apology for the Devil: An Apologetic History of the Cosmos, A Guide to Life in the Times of the Rising God of Nihilation, A Future of the Ends
Synopsis: The Holy Bible presents a story of the cosmos, the history of the world, and how we ought to live our lives. The story it tells, however, is rather one-sided. Thanks to one misbehaving demon, this volume of infernal revelation offers another side of the story. The historical accounts, moral guidance, and prophecy of the Bible are presented as mere propaganda in the greatest conflict of all.

Guided by the Light
Synopsis: A series of poems detailing self-destruction’s triumph’s over bright aspirations.

Forlorn Peregrination
Synopsis: Twelve people get on a plane. Everything gets worse from there as they struggle to survive each other while devising a way to escape the island they crashed on.

“Month Three”

“The Suicide of SKP”
Synopsis: Selah has a small following and a small deathwish. Follow her on her final week’s sermons.

Bad History of Philosophy
Synopsis: A complete history of philosophy from Thales to today. Except it’s really poorly done. Thales is actually Aquaman and correct about everything. The work of all philosophers since has been a series of corrupting footnotes. Especially Socrates, whose corrupting influence was so powerful he had to be laid to death. While Aristotle did his best to defend humanity, the Leviathan Nominalism was unleashed into the world. Other historical episodes include an examination of the Rationalists and whether they were really all that rational, the epic battle to the death between Nietzsche and God, and the bickering between the uncle-nephew duo Early and Late Wittgenstein.

“Reason is Epiphenomenal”
Synopsis: Reason seems like it guides actions, but in fact it does not.

“The Idealism of Kant and Berkeley is Mostly the Same”
Synopsis: Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason initially received reactions comparing it to the immaterialism of Berkeley. Finding this revolting, Kant removed the Fourth Paralogism and added the Refutation of Idealism and made clear he is radically opposed to the idealism of Berkeley. I argue that Kant presents a bad reading of Berkeley, and in fact by his terms, Berkeley is a transcendental idealist. Kant even uses the same strategy to achieve transcendental idealism and empirical realism with the same motivations for each step. The two remain different in a few ways, but their differences ultimately stem from a disagreement over how much can be known about things in themselves.

“Libertarian Freedom of the Will via Principle of Sufficient Reason”
Synopsis: Libertarians about free will have a problem. Either determinism or indeterminism is true about actions. Libertarians take the indeterminist road, but this traditionally is responded to with charges of randomness which also undermines freedom. However, I argue, if a principle of sufficient reason applies to undetermined actions, then randomness is subverted. This paper shows such a PSR is possible and compatible with libertarian free will.
An earlier version of this paper was presented at NCUR 2017. A later version received feedback from the Agency Workshop at the UC Riverside Philosophy Department.

“Willpower is Not a Thing”
Synopsis: Some people think willpower is a thing. They are wrong.


“Irony Explains “Us” in Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit
Synopsis: G.W.F. Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit makes substantial use of irony and continually refers to a “we.” In this paper I seek to explain the use of “we” via the irony in the text. To do so,  I establish the pedagogical role of the text motivating the use of “we” in the first place, explaining this primarily through Hegel’s understanding of knowledge coming only with experience, thereby demanding the reader take part in the movements of the text. Following this I will move into the literature on the use of “we”. While other interpretations give the “we” an especially privileged role, I argue this privilege cannot be real, but rather more akin to the inside scoop a viewer of a play with dramatic irony has access to.

“A Ruse, A Muse”